Electric Luxury: Rolls Royce Phantom EE [30 pics]
Launched at the Geneva Motor Show in March, the 2011 Rolls Royce Phantom EE (experimental electric) represents the world’s first battery electric vehicle for the ultra-luxury segment. The Phantom EE will serve as a working test bed throughout the year, providing crucial data and research regarding alternative drive-trains for Rolls Royce.
Below you will find a gallery of images along with detailed information on this ambitious undertaking. Enjoy!
ROLLS ROYCE PHANTOM EE – KEY QUESTIONS
There are no plans to build a production version of this car. Phantom EE’s role is as a test bed, designed to explore established BEV technologies, to pose as well as to answer questions such as:
– Can the Phantom EE deliver an acceptable range for customers without frequent re-charging? Is there confidence in its ability to operate in extreme conditions? Will reliability and quality be consistent with expectations of the world’s pinnacle automotive brand?
– Is an all-electric drive-train able to deliver an authentic Rolls-Royce experience for customers, an experience that truly befits the marque?
Whether all-electric or another alternative drive-train option is right for Rolls-Royce will become clearer when the test programme is complete at the end of the year
ROLLS ROYCE PHANTOM EE [102EX]
Reinvention is part of being timeless and Phantom EE is the latest in a line of experimental vehicles from Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. It builds on a legacy which dates back to 1919 and the 1EX.
Phantom EE features the car’s ground-breaking aluminium spaceframe, so important to dynamic prowess, as well as the sense of calm and tranquillity enjoyed by occupants. However, the naturally aspirated 6.75-litre V12 petrol engine and 6-speed gearbox have been replaced by a lithium ion battery pack and two electric motors mounted on the rear sub-frame. These motors are connected to a single speed transmission with integrated differential.
Each motor is power rated to 145kW, giving Phantom EE a maximum power output of 290kW and torque of 800Nm available over a wide band. This compares with 338kW for standard Phantom with maximum torque of 720Nm, delivered at 3,500rpm.
The Nickel Cobalt Manganese battery chemistry holds around 230Wh/kg,a high energy density which is important in achieving an acceptable range between re-charges. Pre-launch tests suggests Phantom EE should run to a range of up to 200km. Delivered on an effortless wave of torque, 0-60mph will be achieved in under eight seconds (5.7 seconds in standard Phantom), with top speed limited to 160kph.
This is the first application of the technology in a GKL++ segment (super luxury vehicles priced at more than €200,000) and the battery pack is thought to be the largest ever fitted to a road car.
PHANTOM EE DESIGN
The Phantom EE bears the famous hallmarks of the Rolls-Royce Phantom on which it is based, such as hand craftsmanship, fine detailing and iconic design cues like the pantheon grille and the Spirit of Ecstasy which celebrates its centenary in 2011.
ATLANTIC CHROME EXTERIOR
– Designers were challenged with creating a finish for Phantom EE which immediately signified a special car, distinguishing it from standard Phantom models in the absence of many overt design changes. Not an easy task, since all Phantom models are special – with customers benefitting from a range of bespoke paint options running to some 45,000 colours.
– Extensive research revealed a highly reflective paint using ceramic nano particles. Under a microscope these mimic the impression of a silver metal, but are between 8,000 and 80,000 times smaller than the thickness of a hair or 1,000 times smaller than the size of a normal metallic paint particle.
ILLUMINATED SPIRIT OF ECSTASY
– As well as the launch of the Phantom EE, 2011 marks another milestone in the history of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. On 6 February 1911, the design for Charles Sykes’ Spirit of Ecstasy was first registered, signalling the start of a 100 year period in which this famous icon has adorned the prow of Rolls-Royce cars, from the famous Silver Ghosts, Clouds and Shadows of the 20th Century to today’s hand-built Phantom and Ghost models.
– Phantom EE’s Spirit of Ecstasy, sits atop the radiator grille above the red double-R badge applied to EX models. Made of Makrolon, rather than stainless steel, it will be bathed in blue LED light, hinting at the electric technology beneath the bonnet.
– Atlantic chrome-finished dashboard dials echo the exterior colour, providing a sense of interior-exterior balance and their analogue displays maintain the timeless architecture that every Phantom interior commands.
– One of the most pleasing features of every Rolls-Royce Phantom interior is the power reserve dial located beside the speedometer. This reveals how much of the V12 engine’s power remains at a driver’s disposal. Phantom EE takes this concept a step further.
– It features a regeneration symbol which takes the dial beyond the normal 100% line of standard Phantom. Depending on the momentum gathered, it conveys the degree of re-charge taking place as the vehicle is in motion.
EXTERIOR RE-CHARGING POINT
– Re-charging is undertaken with a plug and five-pin socket which takes the place of the normal fuel filling mechanism for Phantom. The standard fuel filler cap has been replaced by a design featuring a clear window, displaying the RR logo and 102EX motif. The window frames rear-mounted, tricolour LEDs which present the car’s charging status.
– On start up, the socket is bathed in blue light. This begins to flash as charging commences. When completely charged, the display turns green, then flashing green as the solenoid is disengaged. A potential fault in the system is indicated by either constant or flashing red light.
– Charging can be halted via a switch located adjacent to the plug. The process can also be operated inside the vehicle using controls accessed beneath the centre console, for example when induction charging is taking place.
CENTRE CONSOLE DETAIL
– A key identifier for Phantom EE is the design of the centre console charging and display, sited below the central arm rest. A simple switch is used to start and halt charging, while the display itself features a bright plate with an image of a battery, lit by LEDs.
– Reflecting the lights applied to the exterior charging point, this image changes colour according to the charge status of the car. A blue-lit battery shows the vehicle is on standard charge, while pulsating blue indicates that inductive charging is taking place. Green indicates a fully charged battery while red notifies engineers of a potential fault in the system.
– Interior wood veneers present Phantom owners with unique grains, patterns and detail adding weight to the fact that every model leaving Goodwood is as unique as the finger print of its owner. Phantom EE takes this concept a step further.
– Its leather interior is derived from a natural vegetable tanning process christened Corinova. This gives life to the car, adding definition to the seats, floor and arm rests.
– Most leather produced for automotive applications is chrome tanned. This is an important constituent that helps to stabilize animal hides and transfer collagen into leather fibres. The barrel-dyeing process used to colour Phantom interior leathers gives a rich, uniform pigmentation while maintaining the natural feel and softness.
– An experimental leather, Corinova distinguishes itself by being entirely chrome free. It starts with a preparation of Glutardialehyde to prepare for tanning. Chestnut extract, sustainably sourced from Southern Europe and Tara powder from crushed fruit of the Tara bush in South America are used for drum-spun colouring. Fruits are harvested without damage to the plant and the product is finished with a combination of natural binders and high tech polymers.
– As well as aesthetic differences, Corinova leather presents a number of practical benefits. It uses less paint finish than in standard chrome-tanned leather and creates less waste. It negates the use of petrol-refined products and with further development, it may be possible to use recycled Corinova leather in agriculture to aerate soil.
– Rolls-Royce fully expects perceptions to be challenged and first impressions will no doubt focus on appearance, as features that define the life of the animal are more clearly visible in areas like seats and armrests than in production Phantom interiors. A change from the sumptuous finish applied to Phantom leather may imply a compromise to some owners, but others may welcome distinguishing features that stretch individualisation for Rolls-Royce Phantom models ever further.
PHANTOM EE BATTERY PACK
– Phantom EE is thought to have the largest passenger car battery in the world. Peak current is 850A, delivered at 338V DC. Overall capacity is 71kWh.
– The pack is comprised of large-format NCM pouch cells. NCM (Lithium-Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese-Oxide) is a variant of lithium-ion chemistry that has particularly high energy and power densities.
– The Phantom EE battery pack houses five modules of cells, a 38-cell module, a 36-cell module, and three smaller ones of ten, eight and four arranged in various orientations within an irregular shaped unit. This resembles the overall shape of the original engine and gearbox.
– Each of the 96 cells was individually tested before assembly into modules to determine their characteristics and capacity. Sub-assemblies were further tested under load to verify that the power connections between each cell perform to specification.
– Three separate charger units (3kW each) are fitted to the battery, which allow both single-phase (20 hours) or three-phase charging (8 hours); for a passenger car this is unique. A fourth induction charger is also fitted to enable wireless charging, a technology being trialled in Phantom EE.
– The battery pack would be expected to last over three years were it to be used every day. Part of the programme however will be to test this assumption in a real world environment and deliver a more robust answer to the question of battery lifespan.
– Concerns about lack of available re-charging infrastructure in towns and cities are well documented and critics of electric motoring point to the additional inconvenience of trailing cables connected between power source and vehicles.
– To present Rolls-Royce owners with a vision of a potential solution to these problems, Phantom EE is testing a technology called induction charging. This allows re-charging to take place without any physical connection, delivering greater convenience for owners and hinting at the potential for a network of remote charging facilities.
– There are two main elements to induction charging; a transfer pad on the ground that delivers power from a mains source and an induction pad mounted under the car, beneath Phantom EE’s battery pack. Power frequencies are magnetically coupled across these power transfer pads.
– The system is around 90 percent efficient when measured from mains supply to battery and it is tolerant to parking misalignment. For example, it is not essential to align the transmitter and Phantom receiver pads exactly for charging to take place. While pads are capable of transmitting power over gaps of up to 400mm, for Phantom EE the separation is in the region of 150mm.
– The coupling circuits are tuned through the addi¬tion of compensation capacitors. Pick-up coils in the receiver pad are magnetically coupled to the primary coil. Power transfer is achieved by tuning the pick-up coil to the operating frequency of the primary coil with a series or parallel capacitor.
– The pick-up controller is an essential part of the technology because it takes power from the receiver pad and provides a controlled output to batteries. It is required to provide an output that remains independent of the load and the separation between pads. Without a controller, the voltage would rise as the gap decreases and fall as the load current increases.
No of doors/seats: 4 / 5 (optionally 4)
Vehicle length: 5840 mm / 229.9 in
Vehicle width: 1990 mm / 78.3 in
Vehicle height (unladen): 1638 mm / 64.5 in
Wheelbase: 3570 mm / 140.6 in
Turning circle: 13.8 m / 45.3 ft
Track, front: 1687 mm / 66.4 in
Track, rear: 1671 mm / 65.8 in
Width at shoulder height, front: 1509 mm / 59.4 in
Width at shoulder height, rear: 1431 mm / 56.3 in
Leg room, front: 1028 mm / 40.5 in
Leg room, rear: 1109 mm / 43.7 in
Head room, front: 1051 mm / 41.4 in
Head room, rear: 979 mm / 38.5 in
Boot volume (DIN): 460 ltr / 16.2 cu ft
Unladen weight (DIN): 2,720 kg
Gross vehicle weight: 3,030 kg
Payload: 300 kg
Axle load limit, front: 1,473 kg
Axle load limit, rear: 1,548 kg
Maximum power output: 290 kW
Torque: 800 Nm
Chemistry: NCM (Lithium-Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese-Oxide) li-ion
Number of cells: 96 in pouch design
Battery pack weight: 640 kg
Peak current: 330 kW at 850 Amps
Charge time (est): 20 hours single phase / 8 hours three-phase
Transmission type: Single speed 6:5:1 with integral differential
Steering type: EHPS Rack and pinion, speed-sensitive, variable-rate power assistance
Top speed: 160 kph (governed)
Acceleration: 0-60 mph, Under 8 seconds
CO2 emissions: Nil
Wheels (21 in alloy)
Wheel size, front: 8 in x 21 in
Wheel size, rear: 9.5 in x 21 in
12V Battery capacity / installed position: 90+70 Ah / boot